see Petroleum Industries). Within six years of the 1947 Imperial Oil discovery near Leduc, Alberta, the Interprovincial and Trans Mountain pipelines were built, spanning the country. Another TC Energy project, the Energy East pipeline, was intended to carry upward of 850,000 barrels of oil each day from Alberta to refineries Oil companies have built pipelines in Canada to move petroleum since 1862. Canada study of the Athabasca Chipewyan and Mikisew Cree First Nations in 2014 (see also Dene; Cree). Distribution pipelines deliver some natural gas products directly to consumers. A pipeline network consists of gathering systems, trunk lines and distribution systems — parts that are analogous to the roots, When people think of pipelines, they often associate them with the oil and gas industry. linking Canadian oil and natural gas fields with refineries in Alaska, Illinois and Oklahoma. Enbridge’s Northern Gateway pipeline, from Alberta to Kitimat, It is called liquefied natural gas when it has been converted to liquid for transportation or storage. He was a landowner in Pelham Township, Ontario along the path of a proposed extension of IPL (@Enbridge) to Buffalo, NY. trunk and branches of a tree. The construction of these first two long-distance oil pipelines occurred under the regulatory authority of the federal Board of Transport Commissioners. An aerial view of Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain tank farm is pictured in Burnaby, B.C. among the Wet’suwet’en, however, with some hereditary leaders and elected band councils supporting the project. Irving oil terminal in St. John's, NL. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. system and the government’s duty to consult to oppose the Northern Gateway pipeline. Oil companies have built pipelines in Canada to move petroleum since 1862… Some who lived along the paths of these pipelines worried about the potential for oil spills and other adverse environmental consequences. fluid pressure, cleaning the pipe as it goes. From the beginning, Canadian oil and natural gas transportation adapted to unpredictable supplies, rivals, critics, and approval authorities swayed by erratic public opinion and policy. Tweet. But pipeline construction in the past was not without controversy. More and more ordinary Canadians started to raise concerns about oil and gas pipeline development in the 1970s. Occasionally, pipeline politics rose to national prominence. Canada has a long history of energy infrastructure development. According to Natural Resources Canada, the sector earns the government an average of $19 billion in royalties, fees and taxes each year. Here, any water or contaminants in the pipeline are removed from the fossil fuel. A TransCanada (now TC Energy) pipeline, now known as the Canadian Mainline, was heavily debated in 1956, History of Pipelines in Canada Club des régulateurs November 2019. This part of the network is the longest of the three systems. Furthermore, the data sets were inconsistent and, in some instances, incomplete. Kinder Morgan’s Trans Mountain expansion project is not the first pipeline to divide Canada’s major parties and split its electorate. #14 – Canada’s first oil pipeline was also built in the 19th century Shaky financing ultimately led to what amounted to a government bailout of the U.S. consortium that led the project. Norman Richmond, a southern Ontario landowner from Pelham Township, was one such concerned citizen. Oil and gas pipelines unlocked Canada’s transition to a hydrocarbon energy regime during the Great Acceleration, which saw the country become one of the world’s highest per capita consumers of high-energy fossil fuels. Climate The second was the Trans Mountain pipeline, a western line that travelled from Edmonton to Burnaby, B.C., and began shipping oil in 1953. Sympathetic groups held demonstrations Coastal GasLink is also divisive 1 Background on the Canada Energy Regulator We regulate pipelines, power lines, energy development and trade in a way that protects the public and the environment while supporting efficient markets. Indigenous peoples in the North were also concerned about the implications of pipeline development for unresolved land and resource claims. This federal legislation created guidelines and safety requirements for how and where pipelines were built. Based on the analysis of incident reports submitted to the The pipeline debates today reflect some continuities with the past 70 years of oil and gas pipeline development, but there are some significant differences in contemporary pipeline politics. 1 oil field to justify Canada has a long history of building energy pipelines, but Canadian attitudes toward major energy pipeline projects have changed over time. Wax and foreign materials can be removed from oil lines by a process known as “pigging.” A “pig” is a bristle-covered cylinder that is pushed through a pipeline by Pipelines in Canada are important components of energy infrastructure in Canada as the … natural gas to domestic (and eventually foreign) markets soon followed. In the case of oil, trunk lines per year by 2030, equivalent to a 30 per cent reduction below 2005 levels. Pipeline construction has been a political flashpoint. Canada’s first Pipelines Act was passed in 1949. Pipelines are systems of connected pipes used to transport liquids and gases — namely oil and natural gas — across long distances from source to market. One of these routes ran up the Mackenzie Valley, with a possible connection (the “over the … Reeves, Andrew and J.t. As markets expand, the capacity of the trunk lines can be increased by installing parallel lines (known as “loops”) or adding more pumps or compressors. It also contributes nearly 8 per cent of Canada’s gross domestic product. Alyeska Pipeline completes construction of its Trans Alaska Pipeline System, known as TAPS, which moves crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska’s North Slope to Valdez, AK, USA. Prompted by the Arab oil embargo of 1973, Canada and the United States began contemplating major pipelines to transport Alaskan and northern Canadian gas to southern markets. Télécharger. Ryan, "Pipelines in Canada". Canada has a long history of building energy pipelines, but Canadian attitudes toward major energy pipeline projects have changed over time. In early 2018, a trade dispute broke out between British Columbia (a vocal opponent of the pipeline under NDP Premier The 1770 km oil pipeline from Edmonton to the Great Lakes was completed, linking Canada's gas fields with the markets of central Canada. The board approved both pipelines following a few days of hearings with no public consultation or environmental assessments. in the early 1970s raised anxieties within affected communities about the environmental implications of oil pipelines and their further expansion. Northern pipeline development quickly re-emerged in the early 1980s with a proposal from Interprovincial Pipe Line Co. (the company that today is Enbridge) to build an oil pipeline in the Mackenzie Valley from Norman Wells, N.W.T., to Zama, Alta., to deliver northern oil to southern markets. Computerized operation allows pressure, flow and energy consumption throughout the line to be continuously monitored. Trans Mountain Pipeline (Government of Canada), Northwest Territories to British Columbia. Howe. After the welds are X-rayed to detect any flaws, the pipe is wrapped with a protective coating and buried. He spoke before the National Energy Board in November 1961, warning of the need for careful environmental planning in pipeline construction. suggests that operating stations catch only about 15–20 per cent of pipeline leaks. The Canadian and Ontario governments formed a joint Crown corporation to build the more difficult (and less profitable) segment of the pipeline through northern Ontario. It also contributes nearly 8 per cent of Canada’s gross domestic product. "Pipelines in Canada". This first occurred in the mid-1950s during what was known as “The Great Pipeline Debate,” an acrimonious political debacle over the construction of the TransCanada pipeline, the country’s first long-distance interprovincial natural gas pipeline. Both of these communities are located close to Alberta’s oil sands. of emergency, such as closing emergency valves, shutting off pumps and alerting repair crews (see also Computer Systems Applications). Unease over the environmental effects of pipeline construction and operation have grown from primarily local concerns, led by communities of settlers and Indigenous peoples along pipeline routes, to global concerns about climate change and international … export of crude oil and natural gas. Pipeline Completed. A central concern of many Indigenous communities is the risk that comes with situating oil and gas infrastructure in or near the habitats of wild food sources on which they rely. By the end of the 1950s, new pipelines were being built to ship oil from distant wells into Edmonton and, from there, to Vancouver and south to link up with American pipelines. Gas sourced beneath Earth’s surface, composed of mixtures of hydrocarbons such as methane. drinking water is the fear that living in close proximity to fossil and the US Midwest to Ontario) in production. The construction of pipelines to carry crude oil and activists to block construction of TC Energy’s Coastal GasLink pipeline through their traditional territories made national headlines. The local Dene were eventually persuaded to accede to the construction of the pipeline in exchange for additional environmental mitigation efforts, employment opportunities and protections against potential socio-economic effects of pipeline development. 9) Pipeline Maintenance (207) 10) Pipeline Regulations (40) 11) Oil Pipeline Safety Regulations (232) 12) Introduction to Engineering and Design (56) 13) Pipeline and Station Construction (61) 14) Pipeline Economics (47) 15) History of Gas and Oil Pipelines (71) 16) The Origins of Oil and Gas (25) 17) Pipeline Organizations and People (20) This article explores the history of onshore oil spills on federally regulated long-distance pipelines since the mid-twentieth century. The cabinet approved the right-of-way and ordered the company to compensate the First Nation. The very first natural gas pipeline to be constructed in Canada was in 1853. Opposition to pipeline construction in Canada has transformed over the decades, shifting from being a local issue to one of global concerns. Companies also still frequently use “non-continuous” detection systems, which include dogs and visual Thick, dark mixtures of hydrocarbons sourced in the earth or in the process of refining petroleum. These celebrations recognized the diverse people and places that make this country so great. A mixture of nationalist economic and energy policies influenced the decision to prioritize an “all-Canadian” route for the original line from Alberta to Ontario. A decade later, the federal government established the National Energy Board (NEB), an independent agency that has the authority to regulate pipelines crossing provincial or international borders and the How do Canadians benefit? These new reports demonstrate the great difficulty and challenge of documenting the history of oil pipeline spills in Canada. 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